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EI2257 TRANSDUCERS AND MEASUREMENTS LAB SYLLABUS | ANNA UNIVERSITY BE E&I 4TH SEM SYLLABUS REGULATION 2008 2011 2012-2013 BELOW IS THE ANNA UNIVERSITY FOURTH SEMESTER BE ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT SYLLABUS, TEXTBOOKS, REFERENCE BOOKS,EXAM PORTIONS,QUESTION BANK,PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTION PAPERS,MODEL QUESTION PAPERS, CLASS NOTES, IMPORTANT 2 MARKS, 8 MARKS, 16 MARKS TOPICS. IT IS APPLICABLE FOR ALL STUDENTS ADMITTED IN THE YEAR 2011 2012-2013 (ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI,TRICHY,MADURAI,TIRUNELVELI,COIMBATORE), 2008 REGULATION OF ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI AND STUDENTS ADMITTED IN ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI DURING 2009

EI2257 TRANSDUCERS AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY L T P C

(Common to EIE & ICE) 0 0 3 2

OBJECTIVES

The aim of this lab is to train the students in handling the different kinds of transducers like LVDT,

Hall effect, Thermocouple etc., which he often meets in his study and also to impart the students an

adequate knowledge and work experience of the different types of AC and DC bridges, electronic

measurement methods for different electronic instruments.

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1. Displacement versus output voltage characteristics of a potentiometric transducer.

2. Characteristics of Strain gauge and Load cell.

3. Characteristics of LVDT, Hall effect transducer and Photoelectric tachometer.

4. Characteristic of LDR, thermistor and thermocouple.

5. Step response characteristic of RTD and thermocouple and Study of smart transducers.

6. Wheatstone and Kelvin’s bridge for measurement of resistance.

7. Schering Bridge for capacitance measurement and Anderson Bridge

8. for inductance measurement.

9. Calibration of Single-phase Energy meter and wattmeter.

10. Calibration of Ammeter and Voltmeter using Student type potentiometer.

11. Design, Construction and calibration of series and shunt type

12. ohmmeters.

P = 45 TOTAL = 45 PERIODS

DETAILED SYLLABUS

1. LOADING EFFECT ON POTENTIOMETER

AIM

To study the loading effect on potentiometer circuit.

OBJECTIVES

i. To observe the output, input calibration curve using FET voltmeter has the output

device.

ii. To observe the output, input characteristic with an voltmeter whose input impedance

is finite.

iii. To observe the linearity which decreases with a decrease in the input impedance of

the output meter.

EXERCISE

1. In the potentiometer circuit, displacement is given to the wiper arm and the

corresponding output is observed with 2 meters (one is a FET voltmeter and the other is

meter with a finite input impedance)

2. For various input displacements, output voltage from the two different meters are

recorded and tabulated.

3. Plot the graph output Vs input displacement for both cases.

EQUIPMENT

1. Potentiometer – Linear displacement transducer kit – 1 No

2. Regulated power supply – 1 No

3. FET voltmeter, ordinary voltmeter – 1 No

2.CHARACTERISTICS OF STRAIN GAUGE AND LOAD CELL

AIM

To study the characteristics of strain guage and load cell.

OBJECTIVES

1. To identify and study the characteristics of strain guage and load cell.

2. To determine the sensitivity of strain guage and load cell.

3. To determine the Young’s modulus and hence the guage factor of the given strain guage.

EXERCISE

1. Load and Unload the load cell and strain guage.

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2. Measure the corresponding voltages during both loading and unloading and plot the calibration

curve.

3. Find the Young’s Modulus and gauge factor from the graph.

EQUIPMENT

1. Strain guage and Load cell kit. – 1 No

2. Variable power supply – 1 No

3. Loads for measurement - A set

3. CHARACTERISTICS OF LVDT, HALL EFFECT TRANSDUCER AND PHOTOELECTRIC

TACHOMETER.

3.(A) CHARACTERISTICS OF LVDT

AIM

To study the operation and characteristics of LVDT

OBJECTIVES

1. To study the displacement of the core from its null position.

2. To study the variation of output voltage with change in displacement.

EXERCISE

1. Adjust the potentiometer knob present in the LVDT kit to bring the core to Null position (set

the output voltage to be ‘0’ volts)

2. Rotate the knob in the positive direction such that the LVDT scale moves in steps of 1cm

and measure the corresponding output voltage.

3. Tabulate the readings.

4. Repeat the above procedure for negative displacement.

5. Plot the characteristic curve between displacement and output voltage.

EQUIPMENTS

1. LVDT trainer kit – 1 No

2. Power supply – 1 No

3.(b) HALL EFFECT TRANSDUCER

AIM

To study the characteristics of Hall effect transducer.

OBJECTIVE

1. To determine the positive hall voltage at the bottom of the transducer.

2. To determine the negative hall voltage.

3. To identify and study the characteristics of hall effect transducer.

4. To measure the displacement of a structural element .

EXERCISE

1. Study the internal configuration of Hall effect IC.

2. Patch the circuit diagram as per patching diagram.

3. Place the north pole of the magnet above the scale and take the reading air gap

between hall IC and magnet to output voltage.

4. Place the south pole of the magnet above the scale and take the reading for different

distances and plot the graph between air gap voltmeter readings.

EQUIPMENTS

1. Hall effect characteristics trainer – 1 No

2. Power supply – 1 No

3. Voltmeter – 1 No

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3.(c) PHOTOELECTRIC TACHOMETER

AIM

To study the characteristics of photoelectric tachometer using the servo motor speed control

trainer kit.

OBJECTIVES

1. To calculate the number of pulses generated in the photoelectric pick up.

2. To study the variation of speed with the variation of the input voltage.

EXERCISE

1. Connect the circuit as per instructions given in the manual.

2. Adjust the power supply.

3. Vary the speed of the motor by using rotary potentiometer and note down the readings.

4. Calculate number of pulses generated in the photoelectric pick up.

5. Draw the graph between voltage and speed.

EQUIPMENTS

1. Speed control trainer kit – 1 No

2. Power supply – 1 No

3. Wires - Some

4. Multimeter – 1 No

4.CHARACTERISTIC OF LDR, THERMISTOR AND THERMOCOUPLE.

(a) CHARACTERISTICS OF LDR

AIM

To determine the characteristics of LDR

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the change in resistance for corresponding change in light intensity.

2. To determine the output voltage for corresponding change in voltage.

EXERCISE

1. The lamp for LDR is selected by using a select switch.

2. Initially the lamp is kept away from LDR.

3. Now the distance is decreased gradually and the corresponding values of voltages and

resistances are taken.

4. Repeat the above steps for various positions of lamp.

EQUIPMENTS

Photo conductive trainer kit – 1 No

Multimeter – 1 No

Connecting wires – 1 No

(b) CHARACTERISTICS OF THERMISTOR

AIM

To determine the characteristics of thermistor

OBJECTIVES

To measure the resistance value for the corresponding changes in temperature.

EXERCISE

1. Measure the initial temperature of water.

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2. Take another vessel full of water and boil it to1000C.

3. Note down the readings for every 50C fall of temperature in thermistor, thermometer and

output voltage readings.

4. Plot the Thermistor characteristics.

EQUIPMENTS

1. Thermistor Trainer kit – 1 No

2. Heater – 1 No

3. Thermistor – 1 No

4. Thermometer – 1 No

5. Voltmeter – 1 No

4(c) CHARACTERISTICS OF THERMOCOUPLE

AIM

To determine the characteristics of thermocouple.

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the voltage for corresponding change in temperature.

EXERCISE

1. Measure the initial temperature and temperature of boiling water (1000C)

2. Calibrate the thermocouple in the hot water and measure the 50C temperature fall in

thermocouple.

3. The output voltage is noted for corresponding fall in temperature.

EQUIPMENT

1. Thermocouple trainer kit – 1 No

2. Thermocouple – 1 No

3. Voltmeter – 1 No

4. Heater – 1 No

5. STEP RESPONSE CHARACTERISTIC OF RTD AND THERMOCOUPLE AND STUDY

OF SMART TRANSDUCERS.

(a).STEP RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF RTD AND THERMOCOUPLE

AIM

To study the step response characteristic of RTD and thermocouple.

OBJECTIVE

a. To analyse the change in temperature due to change in emf in case of thermocouple.

b. To analyse the change in temperature due to change in resistance in case of RTD.

c. To observe the transients when step input [i.e sudden change in the input] is given.

EXERCISE

1. Calibrate the RTD and thermocouple at room temperature and 1000C alternatively.

2. Bring down the sensor to room temperature and provide a sudden change of input

temperature to boiling point (i.e) 1000C.

3. Start the stop clock and tabulate the time taken for every 50C rise of temperature.

4. Plot the step response for both the sensors.

EQUIPMENT

1. Thermocouple and RTD trainer kit – 1 No

2. Thermometer – 1 No

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3. Heater – 1 No

4. Thermocouple and RTD sensors – 1 No

5. Voltmeters – 1 No

I/P trainer kit – 1 No

Pressure source – 1 No

Control valve etc – 1 No

6. WHEATSTONE AND KELVIN’S BRIDGE FOR MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE.

(A) MEASUREMENT OF MEDIUM RESISTANCE USING WHEATSTONE’S BRIDGE

AIM

To measure the value of unknown resistance using Wheatstone’s Bridge.

EXERCISE

Find the value of unknown resistance.

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Supply is switched on.

3. When the unknown resistance s connected, the bridge becomes unbalanced.

4. The bridge is balanced by varying standard resistance.

5. The value of unknown resistance is calculated by the given formula.

6. The above steps are repeated for different value of unknown resistances.

EQUIPMENT

1. Resistors – 1 No

2. Galvanometer – 1 No

3. Regulated Power supply – 1 No

4. Bread board – 1 No

5. Decade resistance box – 1 No

6. Multimeter – 1 No

(b) KELVIN’S DOUBLE BRIDGE

AIM

To find the unknown value of low resistance using Kelvin’s Double Bridge.

EXERCISE

Find the unknown value of low resistance.

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Supply is switched on.

3. The bridge becomes unbalanced when unknown resistance R is connected.

4. The bridge is balanced by varying standard resistance.

5. Unknown resistance is calculated using balance equation.

6. The above steps are repeated for various values of unknown resistance.

EQUIPMENT

1. Power supply – 1 No

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2. Fixed resistance – 1 No

3. Unknown resistors – 1 No

4. Decade resistance box – 1 No

5. Multimeter – 1 No

6. Galvanometer – 1 No

7. Bred board - 1 No

7. SCHERING BRIDGE FOR CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENT AND ANDERSON BRIDGE

FOR INDUCTANCE MEASUREMENT.

(a) SCHERING’S BRIDGE

AIM

To measure the unknown value of capacitance using Schering’s bridge

EXERCISE

Measure the unknown value of capacitance.

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit.

2. Supply is witched on.

3. When unknown value of capacitance is connected, bridge becomes unbalanced.

4. The bridge is balanced by varying the standard.

5. The unknown value of capacitance is calculated using the balance equation.

6. The above steps are repeated for different values of unknown capacitances.

EQUIPMENT

1. Resistors - Some set.

2. Capacitors – Some set.

3. Decade Resistance box – 1 No.

4. Decade Capacitance box – 1 No.

5. CRO – 1 No.

6. Function Generator – 1 No.

(b) ANDERSON’S BRIDGE

AIM

To measure the unknown value of inductance using Anderson’s Bridge

EXERCISE

Measure the unknown value of inductance.

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Supply is switched on.

3. When unknown value of inductance is connected the bridge becomes unbalanced.

4. The unknown value of inductance is calculated by using the balance equation.

5. The above step are repeated for different values of unknown inductance.

EQUIPMENT

1. Resistors – Some set

2. Decade Inductance box – 1 No.

3. Decade Condenser box – 1 No.

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4. Regulated power supply – 1 No.

5. CRO – 1 No.

6. Bread board - 1 No.

8.CALIBRATION OF SINGLE-PHASE ENERGY METER AND WATTMETER.

(a) CALIBRATION OF SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METER

AIM

To calibrate the given energy meter using two substandard wattmeters and to obtain

percentage error.

EXERCISE

Calibrate the given energy meter and draw % error Vs load graph. PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. The value of load current is adjusted to desire value.

3. When the red mark on the disk of the energy meter passes the observation point, the

stopwatch is started and the number of revolution made by the disc is noted.

4. The load current is maintained by adjusting the load.

5. When the disc of the energy meter completes desired number of revolutions the

stopwatch is stopped and the time taken is noted.

6. The procedure is repeated for different values of wattmeter reading and time taken,

number of revolutions of the disc is noted down.

7. The graph is plotted between percentage error and load.

EQUIPMENT

1. Wattmeter – 2 No

2. Voltmeter – 1 No

3. Ammeter – 1 No

4. Resistive load – 1 No

(b) CALIBRATION OF WATTMETER

AIM

To calibrate the given wattmeter using direct loading.

EXERCISE

Calibrate the given wattmeter and draw the graph between % error and load current.

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Supply is given at no load condition.

3. Resistive load is applied in steps and the readings are tabulated.

4. Graph is drawn between % error and load current.

EQUIPMENT

1. Ammeter – 1 No

2. Voltmeter – 1 No

3. Wattmeter – 1 No

4. Load – 1 No 9. CALIBRATION OF AMMETER AND VOLTMETER USING STUDENT TYPE

POTENTIOMETER.

47

(a) CALIBRATION OF AMMETER

AIM

To calibrate the given ammeter using standard ammeter

EXERCISE

Calibrate the given ammeter and draw the graph between % error and As.

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. The standard ammeter should be selected properly.

3. Supply is switched on.

4. At no load condition the readings of all the meters are noted.

5. By gradually increasing the load, the respective readings are taken from the meters.

6. The readings are tabulated and % error is calculated from the formula.

7. Graph is drawn between As and % error.

8. The procedure is repeated for both ac and dc supply.

EQUIPMENT

1. Standard ammeter – 1 No.

2. Ammeter – 1 No.

3. Variable resistive load – 1 No.

4. RPS – 1 No.

(b) CALIBRATION OF VOLTMETER AIM

To calibrate the given voltmeter using standard voltmeter.

EXERCISE

Calibrate the given voltmeter and draw the graph between % error and VS. PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. The standard voltmeter should be selected properly.

3. Supply is switched on.

4. At no load condition the readings of all the meters are noted.

5. By gradually increasing the voltage, the respective readings are taken from the meters.

6. The readings are tabulated and % error is calculated from the formula.

7. Graph is drawn between Vs and % error.

8. The procedure is repeated for both ac and dc supply.

EQUIPMENT

1. Standard voltmeter – 1 No.

2. Voltmeter – 1 No.

3. Auto transformer – 1 No.

4. RPS – 1 No.

10. DESIGN AND CALIBRATION OF SERIES AND SHUNT TYPE OHMMETERS.

(a) SERIES TYPE OHMMETERS

AIM

To conduct a suitable experiment to measure an unknown medium resistance (1Ω - 0.1MΩ) with

the series type ohmmeter.

48

OBJECTIVE

The instrument most commonly used to check the continuity (a complete circuit), or to measure the

resistance of a circuit or circuit element, is the OHMMETER. The ohmmeter is widely used to

measure resistance and check the continuity of electrical circuits and devices.

OHMMETER SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

The following safety precautions and operating procedures for ohmmeters are the MINIMUM

necessary to prevent injury and damage.

Be certain the circuit is deenergized and discharged before connecting an ohmmeter.

Do not apply power to a circuit while measuring resistance.

When you are finished using an ohmmeter, switch it to the OFF position if one is provided and

remove the leads from the meter.

Always adjust the ohmmeter for 0 (or in shunt ohmmeter) after you change ranges before

making the resistance measurement.

EXERCISE

1. Place the resistance to be measured is in series with the internal resistors and the meter

movement of the ohmmeter.

2. Note down the reading of the meter and calculate the practical value.

3. Calculate the theoretical value

4. Find the difference and error between the theoretical and practical values.

5. Measure the Resistor using Ammeter – Voltmeter method and compare the result with the

Ohmmeter method.

6. Calculate the difference and %error.

7. To implement the continuity test, consider any one electronic circuit and check the continuity

EQUIPMENT

1. Ohmmeter (Analog Multimeter) – 1No

2. Voltmeter - 1 No

3. Ammeter - 1 No

4. Resistor - 1 No

5. RPS - 1 No

(b) SHUNT TYPE OHMMETER

AIM

i. To conduct a suitable experiment to measure an unknown medium resistance (1Ω - 0.1MΩ)

with the series type ohmmeter.

ii. To compare the result with the Ammeter – Voltmeter method

EXERCISE

1. Place the resistance to be measured in shunt ( in parallel) with the meter movement of the

ohmmeter.

2. Note down the reading of the meter and calculate the practical value.

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3. Calculate the theoretical value

4. Find the difference and error between the theoretical and practical values.

5. Measure the Resistor using Ammeter – Voltmeter method and compare the result with the

Ohmmeter method.

6. Calculate the difference and %error.

7. To implement the continuity test, consider any one electronic circuit and check the continuity

EQUIPMENT

1. Ohmmeter(Analog Multimeter) – 1No

2. Voltmeter - 1 No

3. Ammeter - 1 No

4. Resistor - 1 No

5. RPS - 1 No

EI2257 TRANSDUCERS AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY L T P C

(Common to EIE & ICE) 0 0 3 2

OBJECTIVES

The aim of this lab is to train the students in handling the different kinds of transducers like LVDT,

Hall effect, Thermocouple etc., which he often meets in his study and also to impart the students an

adequate knowledge and work experience of the different types of AC and DC bridges, electronic

measurement methods for different electronic instruments.

40

1. Displacement versus output voltage characteristics of a potentiometric transducer.

2. Characteristics of Strain gauge and Load cell.

3. Characteristics of LVDT, Hall effect transducer and Photoelectric tachometer.

4. Characteristic of LDR, thermistor and thermocouple.

5. Step response characteristic of RTD and thermocouple and Study of smart transducers.

6. Wheatstone and Kelvin’s bridge for measurement of resistance.

7. Schering Bridge for capacitance measurement and Anderson Bridge

8. for inductance measurement.

9. Calibration of Single-phase Energy meter and wattmeter.

10. Calibration of Ammeter and Voltmeter using Student type potentiometer.

11. Design, Construction and calibration of series and shunt type

12. ohmmeters.

P = 45 TOTAL = 45 PERIODS

DETAILED SYLLABUS

1. LOADING EFFECT ON POTENTIOMETER

AIM

To study the loading effect on potentiometer circuit.

OBJECTIVES

i. To observe the output, input calibration curve using FET voltmeter has the output

device.

ii. To observe the output, input characteristic with an voltmeter whose input impedance

is finite.

iii. To observe the linearity which decreases with a decrease in the input impedance of

the output meter.

EXERCISE

1. In the potentiometer circuit, displacement is given to the wiper arm and the

corresponding output is observed with 2 meters (one is a FET voltmeter and the other is

meter with a finite input impedance)

2. For various input displacements, output voltage from the two different meters are

recorded and tabulated.

3. Plot the graph output Vs input displacement for both cases.

EQUIPMENT

1. Potentiometer – Linear displacement transducer kit – 1 No

2. Regulated power supply – 1 No

3. FET voltmeter, ordinary voltmeter – 1 No

2.CHARACTERISTICS OF STRAIN GAUGE AND LOAD CELL

AIM

To study the characteristics of strain guage and load cell.

OBJECTIVES

1. To identify and study the characteristics of strain guage and load cell.

2. To determine the sensitivity of strain guage and load cell.

3. To determine the Young’s modulus and hence the guage factor of the given strain guage.

EXERCISE

1. Load and Unload the load cell and strain guage.

41

2. Measure the corresponding voltages during both loading and unloading and plot the calibration

curve.

3. Find the Young’s Modulus and gauge factor from the graph.

EQUIPMENT

1. Strain guage and Load cell kit. – 1 No

2. Variable power supply – 1 No

3. Loads for measurement - A set

3. CHARACTERISTICS OF LVDT, HALL EFFECT TRANSDUCER AND PHOTOELECTRIC

TACHOMETER.

3.(A) CHARACTERISTICS OF LVDT

AIM

To study the operation and characteristics of LVDT

OBJECTIVES

1. To study the displacement of the core from its null position.

2. To study the variation of output voltage with change in displacement.

EXERCISE

1. Adjust the potentiometer knob present in the LVDT kit to bring the core to Null position (set

the output voltage to be ‘0’ volts)

2. Rotate the knob in the positive direction such that the LVDT scale moves in steps of 1cm

and measure the corresponding output voltage.

3. Tabulate the readings.

4. Repeat the above procedure for negative displacement.

5. Plot the characteristic curve between displacement and output voltage.

EQUIPMENTS

1. LVDT trainer kit – 1 No

2. Power supply – 1 No

3.(b) HALL EFFECT TRANSDUCER

AIM

To study the characteristics of Hall effect transducer.

OBJECTIVE

1. To determine the positive hall voltage at the bottom of the transducer.

2. To determine the negative hall voltage.

3. To identify and study the characteristics of hall effect transducer.

4. To measure the displacement of a structural element .

EXERCISE

1. Study the internal configuration of Hall effect IC.

2. Patch the circuit diagram as per patching diagram.

3. Place the north pole of the magnet above the scale and take the reading air gap

between hall IC and magnet to output voltage.

4. Place the south pole of the magnet above the scale and take the reading for different

distances and plot the graph between air gap voltmeter readings.

EQUIPMENTS

1. Hall effect characteristics trainer – 1 No

2. Power supply – 1 No

3. Voltmeter – 1 No

42

3.(c) PHOTOELECTRIC TACHOMETER

AIM

To study the characteristics of photoelectric tachometer using the servo motor speed control

trainer kit.

OBJECTIVES

1. To calculate the number of pulses generated in the photoelectric pick up.

2. To study the variation of speed with the variation of the input voltage.

EXERCISE

1. Connect the circuit as per instructions given in the manual.

2. Adjust the power supply.

3. Vary the speed of the motor by using rotary potentiometer and note down the readings.

4. Calculate number of pulses generated in the photoelectric pick up.

5. Draw the graph between voltage and speed.

EQUIPMENTS

1. Speed control trainer kit – 1 No

2. Power supply – 1 No

3. Wires - Some

4. Multimeter – 1 No

4.CHARACTERISTIC OF LDR, THERMISTOR AND THERMOCOUPLE.

(a) CHARACTERISTICS OF LDR

AIM

To determine the characteristics of LDR

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the change in resistance for corresponding change in light intensity.

2. To determine the output voltage for corresponding change in voltage.

EXERCISE

1. The lamp for LDR is selected by using a select switch.

2. Initially the lamp is kept away from LDR.

3. Now the distance is decreased gradually and the corresponding values of voltages and

resistances are taken.

4. Repeat the above steps for various positions of lamp.

EQUIPMENTS

Photo conductive trainer kit – 1 No

Multimeter – 1 No

Connecting wires – 1 No

(b) CHARACTERISTICS OF THERMISTOR

AIM

To determine the characteristics of thermistor

OBJECTIVES

To measure the resistance value for the corresponding changes in temperature.

EXERCISE

1. Measure the initial temperature of water.

43

2. Take another vessel full of water and boil it to1000C.

3. Note down the readings for every 50C fall of temperature in thermistor, thermometer and

output voltage readings.

4. Plot the Thermistor characteristics.

EQUIPMENTS

1. Thermistor Trainer kit – 1 No

2. Heater – 1 No

3. Thermistor – 1 No

4. Thermometer – 1 No

5. Voltmeter – 1 No

4(c) CHARACTERISTICS OF THERMOCOUPLE

AIM

To determine the characteristics of thermocouple.

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the voltage for corresponding change in temperature.

EXERCISE

1. Measure the initial temperature and temperature of boiling water (1000C)

2. Calibrate the thermocouple in the hot water and measure the 50C temperature fall in

thermocouple.

3. The output voltage is noted for corresponding fall in temperature.

EQUIPMENT

1. Thermocouple trainer kit – 1 No

2. Thermocouple – 1 No

3. Voltmeter – 1 No

4. Heater – 1 No

5. STEP RESPONSE CHARACTERISTIC OF RTD AND THERMOCOUPLE AND STUDY

OF SMART TRANSDUCERS.

(a).STEP RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF RTD AND THERMOCOUPLE

AIM

To study the step response characteristic of RTD and thermocouple.

OBJECTIVE

a. To analyse the change in temperature due to change in emf in case of thermocouple.

b. To analyse the change in temperature due to change in resistance in case of RTD.

c. To observe the transients when step input [i.e sudden change in the input] is given.

EXERCISE

1. Calibrate the RTD and thermocouple at room temperature and 1000C alternatively.

2. Bring down the sensor to room temperature and provide a sudden change of input

temperature to boiling point (i.e) 1000C.

3. Start the stop clock and tabulate the time taken for every 50C rise of temperature.

4. Plot the step response for both the sensors.

EQUIPMENT

1. Thermocouple and RTD trainer kit – 1 No

2. Thermometer – 1 No

44

3. Heater – 1 No

4. Thermocouple and RTD sensors – 1 No

5. Voltmeters – 1 No

I/P trainer kit – 1 No

Pressure source – 1 No

Control valve etc – 1 No

6. WHEATSTONE AND KELVIN’S BRIDGE FOR MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE.

(A) MEASUREMENT OF MEDIUM RESISTANCE USING WHEATSTONE’S BRIDGE

AIM

To measure the value of unknown resistance using Wheatstone’s Bridge.

EXERCISE

Find the value of unknown resistance.

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Supply is switched on.

3. When the unknown resistance s connected, the bridge becomes unbalanced.

4. The bridge is balanced by varying standard resistance.

5. The value of unknown resistance is calculated by the given formula.

6. The above steps are repeated for different value of unknown resistances.

EQUIPMENT

1. Resistors – 1 No

2. Galvanometer – 1 No

3. Regulated Power supply – 1 No

4. Bread board – 1 No

5. Decade resistance box – 1 No

6. Multimeter – 1 No

(b) KELVIN’S DOUBLE BRIDGE

AIM

To find the unknown value of low resistance using Kelvin’s Double Bridge.

EXERCISE

Find the unknown value of low resistance.

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Supply is switched on.

3. The bridge becomes unbalanced when unknown resistance R is connected.

4. The bridge is balanced by varying standard resistance.

5. Unknown resistance is calculated using balance equation.

6. The above steps are repeated for various values of unknown resistance.

EQUIPMENT

1. Power supply – 1 No

45

2. Fixed resistance – 1 No

3. Unknown resistors – 1 No

4. Decade resistance box – 1 No

5. Multimeter – 1 No

6. Galvanometer – 1 No

7. Bred board - 1 No

7. SCHERING BRIDGE FOR CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENT AND ANDERSON BRIDGE

FOR INDUCTANCE MEASUREMENT.

(a) SCHERING’S BRIDGE

AIM

To measure the unknown value of capacitance using Schering’s bridge

EXERCISE

Measure the unknown value of capacitance.

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit.

2. Supply is witched on.

3. When unknown value of capacitance is connected, bridge becomes unbalanced.

4. The bridge is balanced by varying the standard.

5. The unknown value of capacitance is calculated using the balance equation.

6. The above steps are repeated for different values of unknown capacitances.

EQUIPMENT

1. Resistors - Some set.

2. Capacitors – Some set.

3. Decade Resistance box – 1 No.

4. Decade Capacitance box – 1 No.

5. CRO – 1 No.

6. Function Generator – 1 No.

(b) ANDERSON’S BRIDGE

AIM

To measure the unknown value of inductance using Anderson’s Bridge

EXERCISE

Measure the unknown value of inductance.

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Supply is switched on.

3. When unknown value of inductance is connected the bridge becomes unbalanced.

4. The unknown value of inductance is calculated by using the balance equation.

5. The above step are repeated for different values of unknown inductance.

EQUIPMENT

1. Resistors – Some set

2. Decade Inductance box – 1 No.

3. Decade Condenser box – 1 No.

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4. Regulated power supply – 1 No.

5. CRO – 1 No.

6. Bread board - 1 No.

8.CALIBRATION OF SINGLE-PHASE ENERGY METER AND WATTMETER.

(a) CALIBRATION OF SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METER

AIM

To calibrate the given energy meter using two substandard wattmeters and to obtain

percentage error.

EXERCISE

Calibrate the given energy meter and draw % error Vs load graph. PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. The value of load current is adjusted to desire value.

3. When the red mark on the disk of the energy meter passes the observation point, the

stopwatch is started and the number of revolution made by the disc is noted.

4. The load current is maintained by adjusting the load.

5. When the disc of the energy meter completes desired number of revolutions the

stopwatch is stopped and the time taken is noted.

6. The procedure is repeated for different values of wattmeter reading and time taken,

number of revolutions of the disc is noted down.

7. The graph is plotted between percentage error and load.

EQUIPMENT

1. Wattmeter – 2 No

2. Voltmeter – 1 No

3. Ammeter – 1 No

4. Resistive load – 1 No

(b) CALIBRATION OF WATTMETER

AIM

To calibrate the given wattmeter using direct loading.

EXERCISE

Calibrate the given wattmeter and draw the graph between % error and load current.

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. Supply is given at no load condition.

3. Resistive load is applied in steps and the readings are tabulated.

4. Graph is drawn between % error and load current.

EQUIPMENT

1. Ammeter – 1 No

2. Voltmeter – 1 No

3. Wattmeter – 1 No

4. Load – 1 No 9. CALIBRATION OF AMMETER AND VOLTMETER USING STUDENT TYPE

POTENTIOMETER.

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(a) CALIBRATION OF AMMETER

AIM

To calibrate the given ammeter using standard ammeter

EXERCISE

Calibrate the given ammeter and draw the graph between % error and As.

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. The standard ammeter should be selected properly.

3. Supply is switched on.

4. At no load condition the readings of all the meters are noted.

5. By gradually increasing the load, the respective readings are taken from the meters.

6. The readings are tabulated and % error is calculated from the formula.

7. Graph is drawn between As and % error.

8. The procedure is repeated for both ac and dc supply.

EQUIPMENT

1. Standard ammeter – 1 No.

2. Ammeter – 1 No.

3. Variable resistive load – 1 No.

4. RPS – 1 No.

(b) CALIBRATION OF VOLTMETER AIM

To calibrate the given voltmeter using standard voltmeter.

EXERCISE

Calibrate the given voltmeter and draw the graph between % error and VS. PROCEDURE

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. The standard voltmeter should be selected properly.

3. Supply is switched on.

4. At no load condition the readings of all the meters are noted.

5. By gradually increasing the voltage, the respective readings are taken from the meters.

6. The readings are tabulated and % error is calculated from the formula.

7. Graph is drawn between Vs and % error.

8. The procedure is repeated for both ac and dc supply.

EQUIPMENT

1. Standard voltmeter – 1 No.

2. Voltmeter – 1 No.

3. Auto transformer – 1 No.

4. RPS – 1 No.

10. DESIGN AND CALIBRATION OF SERIES AND SHUNT TYPE OHMMETERS.

(a) SERIES TYPE OHMMETERS

AIM

To conduct a suitable experiment to measure an unknown medium resistance (1Ω - 0.1MΩ) with

the series type ohmmeter.

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OBJECTIVE

The instrument most commonly used to check the continuity (a complete circuit), or to measure the

resistance of a circuit or circuit element, is the OHMMETER. The ohmmeter is widely used to

measure resistance and check the continuity of electrical circuits and devices.

OHMMETER SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

The following safety precautions and operating procedures for ohmmeters are the MINIMUM

necessary to prevent injury and damage.

Be certain the circuit is deenergized and discharged before connecting an ohmmeter.

Do not apply power to a circuit while measuring resistance.

When you are finished using an ohmmeter, switch it to the OFF position if one is provided and

remove the leads from the meter.

Always adjust the ohmmeter for 0 (or in shunt ohmmeter) after you change ranges before

making the resistance measurement.

EXERCISE

1. Place the resistance to be measured is in series with the internal resistors and the meter

movement of the ohmmeter.

2. Note down the reading of the meter and calculate the practical value.

3. Calculate the theoretical value

4. Find the difference and error between the theoretical and practical values.

5. Measure the Resistor using Ammeter – Voltmeter method and compare the result with the

Ohmmeter method.

6. Calculate the difference and %error.

7. To implement the continuity test, consider any one electronic circuit and check the continuity

EQUIPMENT

1. Ohmmeter (Analog Multimeter) – 1No

2. Voltmeter - 1 No

3. Ammeter - 1 No

4. Resistor - 1 No

5. RPS - 1 No

(b) SHUNT TYPE OHMMETER

AIM

i. To conduct a suitable experiment to measure an unknown medium resistance (1Ω - 0.1MΩ)

with the series type ohmmeter.

ii. To compare the result with the Ammeter – Voltmeter method

EXERCISE

1. Place the resistance to be measured in shunt ( in parallel) with the meter movement of the

ohmmeter.

2. Note down the reading of the meter and calculate the practical value.

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3. Calculate the theoretical value

4. Find the difference and error between the theoretical and practical values.

5. Measure the Resistor using Ammeter – Voltmeter method and compare the result with the

Ohmmeter method.

6. Calculate the difference and %error.

7. To implement the continuity test, consider any one electronic circuit and check the continuity

EQUIPMENT

1. Ohmmeter(Analog Multimeter) – 1No

2. Voltmeter - 1 No

3. Ammeter - 1 No

4. Resistor - 1 No

5. RPS - 1 No

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